Khartoum, the capital of Sudan and located where the blue and white Niles greet each other and travel northwards towards Egypt and the Mediterranean.  With a population of over 5 million the city is friendly and very manageable.

Khartoum traffic chaos
Khartoum traffic chaos

I spent Christmas and New year in Khartoum. One Friday I decided to do some siteseeing. First stop was to be Osama Bin Ladens old home.

Osama Bin Ladens old home.
Osama Bin Ladens old home.

Located in the wealthy Khartoum district of Al Riyadh, Bin Laden lived here between 1991 and 1996. He lived here with his four wives, four sons and one daughter. It is said whilst Bin Laden was in Sudan, he was involved in experimental farming. Apparently, Bin Ladens farms employed thousands of people. The farms grew white corn, sesame, soybeans, sorghum, and peanuts and also cattle and horses. After investing millions into Sudan and building roads, apparently Bin Laden left the country due to his dismay with the political developments of the country.

The land of the Al Shifa factory bombed by the U.S in 1998
The land of the Al Shifa factory bombed by the U.S in 1998

My next stop on the Khartoum unofficial tourist trail was the Al Shifa medical factory that was bombed in August 1998 on the orders of Bill Clinton. At the time of the bombing, the factory was producing anti-malaria drugs and not nerve gas that Clinton claimed it was producing. There was no evidence of chemical warfare production when 14  cruise missiles destroyed the factory and killed hundreds of innocent people.

The confluence of the white and blue Niles- Khartoum
The confluence of the white and blue Niles- Khartoum

Next stop was the confluence of the two Niles, white and blue. The taxi took me to Tuti Island where I walked to the islands northern tip, passing through fields and boys making mud bricks.

Boy making mud bricks
Boy making mud bricks

Leaving Tuti Island I headed over to Omdurman to watch some Sufi dancing, the highlight of Sudan for me.

Sufi dancing Khartoum
Sufi dancing Khartoum

Outside the Hamid Al-Nil mosque, a crowd of around 400 people with a few western tourists, gathered to watch the dervishes of Sufism perform the ritual of zikr.

Sufi dancing - Every Friday in Omdurman
Sufi dancing – Every Friday in Omdurman

Drums beat, feet stomp, the air grows thick as the hum of the chanting grows steadily louder.

A Sufi practitioner - Sudan
A Sufi practitioner – Sudan

Dust begins to rise along with clouds of incense smoke as the practitioners dressed in patchwork robes of green, red and gold begin to swirl into the night.

Sufi dancing - Sudan
Sufi dancing – Sudan

The followers of Sufism are known for there tranquility and a desire to avoid confrontation.  The al-Qadiriya al-Arkiya sect of Sufism based here in Khartoum believe that Sufism is a philosophical discipline that governs all aspects of life, with its  principal foundation coming from Islam.

A Sufi man wearing a patchwork robe
A Sufi man wearing a patchwork robe

The spectacle starts around 4pm every Friday and ends with the sun setting by which time many of the participants are in a trance like state. The ritual performance felt like a blend of African and Arab cultures and I would recommend it to anyone visiting Khartoum.

Sufi man from Khartoum
Sufi man from Khartoum

I spent another week in Khartoum doing lots of stretching exercises and eating good food. Due to the current situation in Syria, many of the restaurants I frequented were run by Syrians. They were very friendly and the food was tasty and cheap.

Men gathering at the YHA to sing to the sound of the Oud instrument
Men gathering at the YHA to sing to the sound of the Oud instrument

Every Saturday at the YHA, a group of local men gather to play and sing along to the sound of the Oud instrument.

Sudan man playing the Oud
Sudan man playing the Oud

In the Arab world, the Oud is considered the ‘king of instruments’. The instrument has a pear shaped body with a fretless neck. Most Western stringed instruments descend from the Oud.

The roots of the Oud date back 3500 years to Persia where is was called a Barbat
The roots of the Oud date back 3500 years to Persia where it was called a Barbat

My last Friday in Khartoum, I decided I would visit the Nuba wrestling on the other side of the city. I went with a lovely couple from Malaysia who are travelling the world on a BMW motorbike. They are both retired and mad as a box of frogs. My kind of people.

Wong and his wife travelling the world on a BMW motorbike
Wong and his wife travelling the world on a BMW motorbike

Enroute to the wrestling, we noticed a group had gathered by the side of the road. Women were dancing and wearing lovely colourful dresses and a handful of men were playing instruments.

Local drum - Sudan
Local drum – Sudan

We walked over and were informed a wedding was taking place.

Sudanese bridesmaids
Sudanese bridesmaids

The locals warmed towards us, encouraging us to take photos. The women clapped and swayed to the beat, as the men, dressed in white, danced in a circle.

The bride - Khartoum wedding
The bride – Khartoum wedding

At different times, individual women would step forward and do a kind of Bez dance from the Happy Mondays.

A Sudan woman dancing at a wedding - Khartoum
A Sudan woman dancing at a wedding – Khartoum

It was all very vibrant and friendly.  No airs or graces, no fancy food nor big stretch limos. Everyone was having a ball.

Good luck to the bride!!
Good luck to the bride!!

From the wedding,  a nice man kindly offered to take us the remaining 2km to the Nuba wrestling stadium.

Nuba wrestling - Khartoum
Nuba wrestling – Khartoum

We arrived at the stadium and it was packed to the rafters. We paid a 15sdp entrance fee and granted a front row view.

Sudan men watching the wrestling
Sudan men watching the wrestling

Nuba wrestling is the national sport of Sudan. Big Nuba men covered in ash and dust, circle each other with the aim of toppling his opponent. It didn’t happen often in the many bouts I witnessed, but when a wrestler was successful, the crowd went crazy.

Nuba wrestlers. One is known as ‘Fat Tiger’ another is known as ‘influenza’ and is 7ft tall
Nuba wrestlers. One is known as ‘Fat Tiger’ another is known as ‘influenza’ and is 7ft tall

Each bout lasted approximately 4 minutes. In some bouts the wrestlers did nothing more than look each other. When a wrestler did manage to flex his muscles and win a bout, a member from the crowd adored the champion with bank notes.

A young Sudanese wrestling fan
A young Sudanese wrestling fan

Even though the sport is popular in the country, outside the ring, a dark reality exists for the Nuba people. The Nuba Mountains, 500km south of Khartoum have been at the centre of a civil war between the Sudan Arab government and Nubian Rebels.

Nubian wrestler - Khartoum
Nubian wrestler – Khartoum

The Sudan government have been accused of ethnic cleansing the Nuba people by bombing hospitals, schools, homes and markets. Many of the Nuba tribe have fled to South Sudan and Ethiopia. The Nubians who have remained in Khartoum believe they are treated as second class citizens and suffer from racial prejudices by the lighter skinned Arab establishment.

Wrestling fanatics - Khartoum
Wrestling fanatics – Khartoum

For centuries,  the dark skinned Nuba people served as slaves for the Arabs in Sudan.   Over time, in this unnatural modern complex hierarchy society we live in today, the Nuba people find themselves at the bottom of the ladder.

Sudanese
Sudanese

18th December 2017

I paid 325ep for the ferry from Aswan to Sudan. I purchased my ticket from the Nile River Transport Corporation located near the tourist police station. The ferry runs on Sundays once a week. It was a 15km cycle from Aswan to the port.

Aswan ferry to Wadi Haifa, Sudan
Aswan ferry to Wadi Haifa, Sudan

I was at the port for 10am. I paid 50ep to leave Egypt and an extra 50ep to take the bicycle on the boat. We set sail just after 5pm.

Aswan boat to Wadi Haifa, Sudan
Aswan boat to Wadi Haifa, Sudan

There was 90 people on aboard. In the past, the ferry has carried 800 people plus the kitchen sink. There was plenty of room.

Prayers at sunset
Prayers at sunset

Food was basic but included in the price of the ticket. You could buy drinks on board if needed.

Sudanese feet on the prayer mat
Sudanese feet on the prayer mat

As we began to set off, the Muslims on board began to pray. It was quite funny. They began there prayers facing east towards Mecca. But then the boat pulled out of the harbour. Prayers stopped and they all jumped up. It took twenty minutes for them to decide which way was east. Mats where realigned, and prayers commmenced.

Top deck. Muslims praying
Top deck. Muslims praying

I slept on the top deck of the ferry. The sky was fantastic. Shooting stars, amazing. The following morning the ferry passed Abu Simbel and the views were great.

Abu Simbel - Egypt
Abu Simbel – Egypt

We arrived at the port in Wadi Haifa around noon. All passport formalities were taken care of onboard the ferry.

Wadi Haifa port, Sudan
Wadi Haifa port, Sudan

Through Sudan immigration without any problems. It was a 10 minute cycle from the port to the centre of Wadi Haifa.

Nubian man, Wadi Haifa, Sudan
Nubian man, Wadi Haifa, Sudan

The journey took 21 hours. Myself and Edward from Switzerland were the only foreigners on board.

Edward from Switzerland changing money 1ep equals 1.45 Sudanese pound
Edward from Switzerland changing money 1ep equals 1.45 Sudanese pound

I cycled the 5km into Wadi Haifa and met Edward at the El Harem hotel. We took a room for 150 Sudanese pounds shared between us. The hotel owner exchanged our dollars. 1 US dollar = 25 Sudanese pounds. The hotel has WiFi. Not as fast as it is in Egypt.

Sudanese man smoking the shesha pipe, Wadi Haifa
Sudanese man smoking the shesha pipe, Wadi Haifa

Once we had booked into our room. We tried to register at the police station, which is located near the bus station. The sergeant had already finished work. We were told to return in the morning. I’m heading out tomorrow so will register in Dongola, 4 days cycling.

Wadi Haifa food, Sudan
Wadi Haifa food, Sudan

We went out for a feed. 1 omelette, potatoes and bread cost 15 Sudanese pounds. Coffee cost 5 Sudanese pounds. The Sudanese are very friendly and seem genuine. A good start to Sudan.

Cairo to Beni Suef

Time to leave Cairo and head southwards. I was up and out the door of the hotel for 6am. My intended destination, Beni Suef. A filthy, polluted canal to my left hand side as I took my first steps into the unknown. Apparently, the locals call this farmers or green road.

Heading out of Cairo, Egypt
Heading out of Cairo, Egypt

Air thick with smoke, I pedalled towards Saqqara to see the first pyramid built by the Egyptians, the Step Pyramid of Djoser. Unfortunately, I was to early and the guards at the complex wouldn’t let me enter. They wouldn’t let me take a photo from the gate either! Rather than wait 30 mins, I decided to push on, I had a long day ahead.

The canal I followed south. Egypt
The canal I followed south. Egypt

After 35km of cycling, I came upon another pyramid complex named the Dahshur Pyramids. Archaeologists date these pyramids to being built between 2613 to 2589bc. I paid my entrance fee 60ep and cycled towards the Red Pyramid.

The Red Pyramid of Dahshur, Egypt
The Red Pyramid of Dahshur, Egypt

Built during the reign of the pharaoh Sneferu, the Red Pyramid is believed to have been the first smooth sided pyramid ever built.

The Red Pyramid of Dahshur. Egypt
The Red Pyramid of Dahshur. Egypt

From the Red Pyramid a nicely constructed path took me to the Bent Pyramid! This pyramid was built with the intention of  moving away from the traditional ‘step’ pyramid design.

The Bent Pyramid of Dahshur, Egypt
The Bent Pyramid of Dahshur, Egypt

The next pyramid I came across is named the Black Pyramid. The official line says it was built during the reign of  King Amenemhat III and was abandoned because the desert sands beneath were to unstable to support the weight of the structure. I wonder how the desert sands support the other pyramid structures!!

The Black Pyramid of Dahshur, Egypt.
The Black Pyramid of Dahshur, Egypt.

From the complex I headed back towards the ‘green’ road, stopping in a tatty village to put air in my tyres. My first impression of the Egyptians, very hospitable, like every Islamic Country I have visited.

Egyptian woman
Egyptian woman

The road was flat so I thought I was making good progress. This region of the Nile Valley consists of the broad floodplain and lies between steep limestone or sandstone hills, the desert always on the horizon..

Agricultural land. Nile Delta. Egypt
Agricultural land. Nile Valley. Egypt

Kids waving and shouting ‘hi, where do you come from,’ Offers of tea from the elders working the fields, I was happy in the saddle.

Donkeys used as a beast of burden, Nile Valley, Egypt
Donkeys used as a beast of burden, Nile Valley, Egypt

Aswell as having to deal with all the motorised traffic, it also appeared that donkeys play an important role in the Valley as the principal load carrier, as they did in ancient times. Ive probably seen more donkeys today than ever before.

Birds eating scraps, Nile Valley, Egypt
Birds eating scraps, Nile Valley, Egypt

Long flat stretches of road for most of the day, the sun was burning holes in my clothes as the day wore on.

Egyptian man
Egyptian man

Lots of refreshment stops and by mid afternoon, I was grateful for these small shacks. The snack sellers where always happy to chat in broken English. The kids always curious of the strange Englishman on a bicycle.

Curious Egyptian kids.
Curious Egyptian kids.

After 100km in the saddle I passed the Meidum Pyramid.

Meidum Pyramid, Egypt
Meidum Pyramid, Egypt

With time pushing on,  I decided not to detour towards the complex, I still had 50km to reach my destination.  I kept cycling until reaching the Faiyum-Beni Suef overpass. A boy in a village stated it was 5km to Beni Suef and I felt a sense of relief. However, it turned out to be 35km, it was a slog. I reached my destination just as it was getting dark. Touching 150km in the saddle. I found a hotel for 70ep (£3) and moved in. A bit ramshackle but it had hot water for a shower.

Egyptian pasta dish
Egyptian pasta dish

After a shower, I went out to find some food. I was half way through a meal when an undercover cop turned up. He followed me around town until I went back to my hotel. The next morning after a great nights sleep, who would be waiting to escort me out of town, 4 cops in a car!!

Beni Suef to Minya

A 7am start and treated like a VIP.  I was escorted through Beni Suef to the edge of town by 4 cops in a squad car. At the edge of Beni Suef, I was passed over to the next district cops. They asked if I wanted to put the bicycle in the pick up. I refused, so they followed behind, a little disgruntled. We reached a town named Biba after 25km and I stopped for breakfast.

Restaurant owner, Biba. Egypt
Restaurant owner, Biba. Egypt

Falafel for breakfast. The restaurant owner refused payment, thank you for your generosity. The police swapped with the next district and we were off again.

Egyptian woman working the land.
Egyptian woman working the land.

The road was flat again. It’s cold until around 10ish. I start off wearing a t shirt and chequered shirt and by noon I’m taking off layers. Every town I pass through the cops do a change of guard. Some speak English, some don’t. In general they are very helpful.

Changing of the guard. Egyptian police.
Changing of the guard. Egyptian police.

Today I was cycling along the Aswan Western Agricultural road.

A typical Egyptian town.
A typical Egyptian town.

Passing through the towns of Al Fashn and Al Fant, the air was still smokey. Donkeys, rickshaws, you name it, it comes at you from all directions.

Shepherd and his flock. Egypt
Shepherd and his flock. Egypt

We reached the town of  Maghaghah and I found myself in a police station drinking tea with the top dog and three of his chief lieutenants. It felt rather bizarre!

Three Egyptian cops in hot pursuit.
Three Egyptian cops in hot pursuit.

Once through the formalities at Maghaghah I pushed on, with fresh cops in tow. I find they become more disgruntled later in the day, as my legs become tired and my need for breaks more frequent.

Egyptian beast of burden.
Egyptian beast of burden.

Most of the towns look similar. Fairly big in size. Half built with a mosque or two reciting the Koran through a loud speaker. Most need a good clean. Garbage is strewn everywhere.

Egyptian woman washing
Egyptian woman washing

After passing through Matay and Samalut, I reached my destination for the day, Minya. I had four cops in a car and six cops in a pick up escort me to my hotel.

 

Egyptian man. I paid for his meal. He was very grateful. Samalut.
Egyptian man. I paid for his meal. He was very grateful. Samalut.

The back street hotel left a lot to be desired. Rundown but with lots of potential. Art decor gone pharaoh style. I paid 70ep (£3) and had all the cops, who had escorted me to the hotel sleep outside. That’s what I call first class service. VIP or what!!!

Minya to Asuf

I didn’t have a shower last night, I didn’t like the look of the bathroom!! I slept like a baby, as one would expect after cycling 300km in two days.

Aswan Agricultural Road. Egypt
Aswan Agricultural Road. Egypt

Today was more of the same. Passed from one security car to the next in each town. With it being a Friday, the road was very quiet.

Hello from Egypt
Hello from Egypt

Back on the Agricultural road, it was cold when I set off. Opting for my coat, my shirt covered in dust.

Good morning from Egypt
Good morning from Egypt

The road was flat again. The Nile River to my left hand side, fields of sugar cane to my right.

Sugar cane, Nile Valley, Egypt
Sugar cane, Nile Valley, Egypt

Friday being a non working day, lots of Egyptians seemed to be spending there time drinking tea and smoking the shesha pipe.

Egyptian men relaxing by the Nile River
Egyptian men relaxing by the Nile River

I passed through the towns of Mansafis, Abu Qurqas and Mallawi were I stopped to eat Falafel. Three falafel sandwiches, 7ep, a good meal and cheap!

Falafel
Falafel

From Mallawi my next port of call and cop change was Dayrout.

Waiting for the cops in Dayrout, Egypt
Waiting for the cops in Dayrout, Egypt

Through Dayrout or as the Egyptians spell it Dairut and I stopped for a break. My legs where feeling the pain today and it was time to embrace it. The cops duly obliged in waiting but were eager to get going.

Fruit stall -Dairut.
Fruit stall -Dairut.

After munching on the best bananas ever we set off. More flat cycling, men coming out of the mosques after prayer. I stopped in the sizeable town of Al Qusiyyah and had a tea and more bananas. I contemplated staying for the night. Friendly locals, it seemed like a good crazy place.

Al Qusiyyah, Egypt
Al Qusiyyah, Egypt

Whilst drinking tea, two chaps where driving round in a car with no windows. They do things differently here and the cops don’t seem to care.

Al Qusiyyah, Egypt
Al Qusiyyah, Egypt

From Al Qusiyyah it was one last push to Asyut. If it wasn’t for the police, I would stay with the locals. They escort me every step of the way. I know there intentions are good but I really like the Egyptians. They are friendly and even though they are curious, they are not in your face.

Towards Asyut, Egypt
Towards Asyut, Egypt

We reached Asyut and the police booked me into a very modern hotel near the train station. It’s 200ep a night and worth it. I may take a rest day tomorrow. I’ve covered over 400km in three days and my legs feel sore.

Asyut to Sohag

Asyut, home to 400,000 Egyptians. Situated in the middle of Egypt, it is famous for its large textile industry.  Historically, Asyut has a dark past. From the 18th century, Asyut was the final destination of the slave caravans on the ‘40 days road’ from Darfur in Sudan.  From Asyut, the slaves then traveled to Cairo were they where sold to the Ottomans. The sultan of Darfur and the merchants who travelled the ‘40 days road’ are now living in hell.

 

From Asyut to a side road at Qirqaris. Aswan to Sohag side road. Egypt
From Asyut to a side road at Qirqaris. Aswan to Sohag side road. Egypt

After a rest day in Asyut, I continued the journey south. I picked up the Qena-Menfalout road which hugs the Nile. The air was cool and after 10km, with no police presence, I turned off the major road near Qirqaris.

Boys on donkeys, Egypt
Boys on donkeys, Egypt

Over some train tracks, over a bridge. I turned left onto a more rural road. Traffic was lighter and the Egyptians friendly.

Friendly Egyptian farmer
Friendly Egyptian farmer

A canal ran alongside the road, utilised  by the Egyptian farmers as the primary source of water for there crops. Alongside the canal ran the Egyptian Rail track which transports over 800 million passengers yearly. Apparently, fares are kept low as a social service.

Egyptian trains. Fares kept low as a social service
Egyptian trains. Fares kept low as a social service

I reached the first major town on this road, Baqur and was invited to join the wholesale orange traders for a cup of coffee.

Orange Trader, Baqur, Egypt
Orange Trader, Baqur, Egypt

In Baqur district this year, Egyptian security forces shot and killed seven muslim men ‘thought’ to be connected with a radical Muslim group. Killed because they ‘thought’ these men where going to attack the large Coptic Christian population in this district. Whose radical?

The route after Baqur, Egypt.
The route after Baqur, Egypt.

Through Baqur, the road was smooth and tree lined.

Tree lined road after Baqur, Egypt
Tree lined road after Baqur, Egypt

I reached the town of Sidfa and stopped for a falafel sandwich. I was mobbed by a group of school kids. They were very friendly and all wanted a selfie. My peaceful rest for lunch went out the window.

Backstreet boys - Sidfa, Egypt.
Backstreet boys – Sidfa, Egypt.

I duly obliged with the selfies before moving on. Back on the road, kids and mothers waved. As soon as I got the camera from the bag, the mothers ran for cover.

Friendly Egyptian kids
Friendly Egyptian kids

When not running from the camera, the women of the villages were busy baking bread by the side of the road. The Egyptian diet is very simple of which bread is an important item. Fingers are used as knife and fork.

Sun baked bread - Egypt
Sun baked bread – Egypt

The earliest inhabitants of Egypt lived in huts made from papyrus reeds. They then discovered that the mud left behind after the annual flooding of the Nile could be baked into bricks. The poor lived in these mud huts because they where cheap to build, whilst the rich built houses from stone. In recent times, the Egyptian government has experimented in  self help projects with state funds.

Rural housing, Egypt
Rural housing, Egypt

I pushed on until reaching the large town of Tahta. I asked a man named Mahmoud, sitting outside a large building, for directions. He invited me for a cup of tea and I obliged.

Mahmoud lives in Sohag
Mahmoud lives in Sohag

Mahmoud as it turned out, is one of those special human beings. We chatted about our respective countries and how similar they are. How times are hard, prices rising. He spoke very good English. He helps the poor in Egypt.

Together we can end Hunger.
Together we can end Hunger.

In his free time Mahmoud helps those who are incapable of working and earning an income. These cases are mainly the elderly, orphans, widows and those with a severe illness. The Egyptian Food Bank provides the needy with food, gas cookers and other essential items so that the poor don’t suffer from hunger.

Egyptian Food Bank.
Egyptian Food Bank.

Currently, there are over 850 million people worldwide suffering from hunger and poverty. Everyone should have the right to basic needs.

Cabbage plot, Egypt
Cabbage plot, Egypt

From Tahta, Mahmoud directed me back towards the major highway. I was about 20 km from Sohag when the police caught up with me. I was then escorted all the way into busy Sohag, taking a hotel near the train station.

Sohag to Qena

The towns of Sohag and Qena are separated by 140km. I rose early and the police were waiting. Through the backstreets of Sohag.  Kids going to school, cars clogging the narrow and dusty streets.

Police near Sohag, Egypt
Police near Sohag, Egypt

The Sohag police followed for 20km before the changing of the guard. The road was under repair. Slow going, the police pushing for me to put the bicycle in the pickup.

Egyptian man
Egyptian man

I reached the busy town of Al Hags after 50km and had a long wait. The police wouldn’t let me go on alone. I had to wait but I was fed falafel. A cop arrived on a motorbike and he escorted me onwards.

A cattle egret, Egypt
A cattle egret, Egypt

The fields lining the road where full of birds, particularly the Cattle Egret. Unfazed by the traffic and humans, these birds seemed to be feeding on insects in the shallow water.

Egyptian farmer.
Egyptian farmer.

At the next police checkpoint I met  a 20 year old German named Mano. He was also on a bicycle and heading south. We waited over an hour for the police to get there act together.

Manu from southern Germany
Manu from southern Germany

It was still 75km to Qena when we set off. The time was nearing 2pm. At Nagaa Hammadi, we crossed a bridge to the east bank of the Nile. The road was quiet, rural with the desert within touching distance.

Boats on the canal, Egypt
Boats on the canal, Egypt

The route was like a rainbow. Desert yellow, agricultural green, water blue and black tarmac. The sun was beating down as we picked up the pace. Little traffic.

Farmers working the land alongside the Nile
Farmers working the land alongside the Nile

The police changed the guard only once at Dishna. We stopped in Dishna to grab a bite to eat. With the sun going down, we agreed to put our bicycles in the pickup for the last 15kms into Qena.

Dishna. East bank of the River Nile, Egypt
Dishna. East bank of the River Nile, Egypt

My first impression of Qena was how clean it was compared to other Egyptian towns. The traffic was semi orderly. Cheap hotels and very cheap food, Qena came as a real surprise.

Qena to Luxor

Breakfast included in the price of the hotel room. Great deal. Today was to be a short day. 68km from Qena to Luxor. We set off without the police but we were stopped at the first checkpoint. Manu put his bicycle in the police pickup, I refused. An ageing policeman, with one star on his collar, started going mental at me in Arabic. I just smiled and refused to comply. His work mates fell about laughing.  They set off without me.

Egyptian police.
Egyptian police.

I was left to my own devices. I cycled along the east bank of the Nile. The road was busy.  Tour buses heading to Luxor and then onto Aswan probably.

Flowers lining the road
Flowers lining the road

Farmers in the fields tending to there hard work. Flowers of many colours lined the road, enjoying the cool morning breeze.

Egyptian farmer
Egyptian farmer

After 30km of cycling the police returned hoping to convince me to get in the pickup. I refused outright. I told them I was on holiday and here to enjoy Egypt. One of the policeman agreed and told the one star cop to leave me be.

Water dispenser, Egypt
Water dispenser, Egypt

I kept on cycling unhindered. I stopped in the town of Qus for a rest.

Qus houses, Egypt
Qus houses, Egypt

Chatting to the locals smoking the shesha pipe and drinking tea. I haven’t felt threatened in Egypt. Maybe I don’t see the danger? Kids coming out of school have been the only issue. Sometimes they ask for a dollar and run after the bicycle. It’s no big deal.

Egyptian man smoking the shesha pipe
Egyptian man smoking the shesha pipe

10km from Luxor I caught up with Manu at a police checkpoint. We cycled the remaining km into Luxor with the cops in tow. Luxor has changed a lot since I was last here. Shirley Valentines smoking the shesha pipe. Whatever floats your felucca. We booked into the Happy Land hotel for 3 pounds. It’s clean and the owner is cool.

Luxor.

Once known as Thebes, the ancient religious capital of Egypt. Today, Luxor is characterised as the ‘worlds greatest open air museum’.  Within Luxor itself, you have the temples complexes of  Karnak and Luxor.

Ramesses II - Luxor Temple
Ramesses II – Luxor Temple

The Luxor complex was built from sandstone or Nubian sandstone. The Egyptians used a technique to build these structures known today as illusionism.  At the site of the Luxor complex, there used to be two granite obelisks at the site entrance, (there is only one now, the other is in Paris at the Place de la Concorde) that were not the same height. The Egyptian builders created the illusion that they were the same height due to the layout of the temple complex.

Obelisk at Luxor Temple - Egypt
Obelisk at Luxor Temple – Egypt

Unlike other temple complexes in the area, Luxor Temple was not dedicated to a cult god or a place of  rest for one of the Egyptian pharaohs. Instead Luxor Temple was dedicated to the rejuvenation of kingship, a place where many of the Kings of Egypt were crowned.

Luxor Temple a place of kingship
Luxor Temple a place of kingship

On the West Bank of the Nile, I visited the valley of the Kings, a world heritage site. This place was the major burial site of the royal figures of Egypt and privileged nobles for a period of 500 years from the 16th to 11th century BC. The eternal homes of these privileged few where huge and decorated with religious text and images, the Egyptian hieroglyphs. The workmen who built these tombs lived in a village named Deir el Medina. It is believed that these workmen are the first people in history to down tools and protest against the authorities due to a lack of food.

Hatshepsut complex.
Hatshepsut complex.

I also visited other burial tombs in the area.  The question I asked myself was not how they built these complex’s, but how did these pharaohs become leaders of people and how did they subjugate the populace.

Horus the god of the rising and setting sun
Horus the god of the rising and setting sun

The first known recorded settled civilisation lived along the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers of Mesopotamia, modern day southern Iraq. The city named Sumer was settled between 5500 and 4000 BC and the people where known as Sumerians. During this same time period, hunters and  gatherers moved to the Nile valley from less fertile areas of Africa and south west Asia and began to settle.

These hunter gathering groups were built on equality. They didn’t have permanent leaders, there was no hierarchy. They shared the responsibilities between the group collectively.  Then along came the rise of agriculture and the evolution of the mind.

Hatshepsut complex. Egypt
Hatshepsut complex. Egypt

Through agriculture, humans began to hoard food and resources.  The more evolved mind in Egyptian society at this time will have shown hunter gathering people how to farm the land and induce them to settle in one place.  The human being whose mind was more aware, conscious, during this period in human history became the voluntary leader. By making life a little easier, no more hunting animals or gathering berries, a hierarchy evolved. Humans began having bigger families and the population grew.

Hieroglyphs - Egypt
Hieroglyphs – Egypt

As the population began to grow and society became more complex, these leaders had to create some kind of order. They created this order by using fear, the basic nature of humanity. These leaders began to exploit and cultivate fear using geography and religion.

Views from Hatshepsut - Egypt
Views from Hatshepsut – Egypt

In Egypt, the Nile Valley is green and fertile. Crops grow and water is in abundance, Outside this region, desert dominates, a harsh environment. The cost of disobeying the King was high. There was nowhere else to go. The rulers understood this and leadership grew to despotism.

The rulers of ancient Egypt based there authority on religious beliefs. Having shown hunter gathering people how to farm the land, written text in the form of religion was introduced into the equation. By informing society that gods controlled everything on earth, and the rulers controlled Egypt, society concluded that the pharaohs must be god-Kings. Therefore, if they didnt obey the god-Kings who speak directly to the gods who control everything on earth, the land wouldn’t regenerate. The reality of living a hunter gathering lifestyle once more, put fear in the minds of the simple Egyptian people. In time, the skills of the hunter gathers would have been lost and the folklore and culture would have many tales of danger and hardship. So society would have been living in a state of fear and suffering due to crop failure and famine.

Hieroglyphs Egypt
Hieroglyphs Egypt

A pyramid system was set up with the pharaohs at the top. Then followed the nobles, priests and officials who would collect taxes. The next level down you had the merchants and artisans who worked full time building palaces, temples and tombs. At the bottom of the pyramid you had the farmers, servants and slaves.  Is it possible they used mud ramps to climb the social pyramid!!! That is how inequality rose 7000 years ago in Egypt, which allowed the pharaohs to live a life of opulence, taking there treasures to the vaults of the underworld.

Luxor to Edfu

I spent 3 days in Luxor seeing the sights and wandering the town. I highly recommend the Happy Land Hotel. I paid 100ep, breakfast included. Fast WiFi, clean, upstairs chilling area.

Luxor tourist shop, Egypt
Luxor tourist shop, Egypt

The number of tourists visiting Egypt in recent years has declined massively. Walking through tourists towns like Luxor and Aswan, western faces are few and far between. Tourist shops are closed, big hotels are empty and the tourists boats stand idle along the Nile shores. I was happy to leave Luxor, I found the people a bit false, 1 dollar there new saviour.

Kind man invited me to his house in the village of Tod, Egypt.
Kind man invited me to his house in the village of Tod, Egypt.

I cycled out of Luxor along the shores of the east bank of the Nile. I passed through two check posts, the police were not interested in me. Nearing the community of Tod, a chap on a motorbike pulled up alongside. He spoke very good English and he invited me back to his house for a tea. I agreed to his hospitality.

Egrets remind me of the Bangles song ‘walk like an Egyptian’
Egrets remind me of the Bangles song ‘walk like an Egyptian’

Off the main highway and through the Egyptian country lanes. I arrived at my friends new house. I was introduced to his 16 year old son. We chatted about Middle East politics and how the media in the West portrays the Arab world. We chatted about Egyptian history and how not much has changed. It was a positive interaction.

Egyptian pottery
Egyptian pottery

I stayed for 30 minutes at my new friends house. I had a long day ahead. I was chauffeured back to the highway through villages untouched from modern conveniences. People looked with surprise.

Egyptian man
Egyptian man

Back on the highway heading south, passing through the towns of Ash Shaghab and Esna. Liter lined the road, plastic bags a blight on the landscape.

Poor social behaviour and a lack of environmental awareness, Egypt
Poor social behaviour and a lack of environmental awareness, Egypt

Plastic bags are a huge threat to the environment. They have a massive impact on natural ecosystems causing the death of aquatic organisms, animals and birds. It is estimated over 1 trillion single use plastic bags are consumed world wide every year.

Egyptian fields. A farmers paradise.
Egyptian fields. A farmers paradise.

I stopped in Esna for some shade and a lunch break. I didn’t like the look of the roadside restaurant. Opting for a packet of nuts and and a bar of chocolate washed down with water, going for the safe option.

Egypt is a Muslim Country. They pray five times a day.
Egypt is a Muslim Country. They pray five times a day.

I pushed on from Esna with still another 50km to Edfu. The further south I go, I feel the heat rising. At the end of a days cycling, my t shirt is always crusty from sweat and the salt from the road.

Egyptian man out on his donkey.
Egyptian man out on his donkey.

About 35km outside Edfu I came upon a police checkpoint. The first time in the day I was stopped. I was told to sit down and wait for an escort. The police radioed for an escort to come from Edfu, an hours wait.

Police checkpoint. Egypt
Police checkpoint. Egypt

I applied some reason and told them I would meet the pickup enroute. At first they refused but eventually saw sense.

Egyptian modern day art. Painting the flag.
Egyptian modern day art. Painting the flag.

Once through the checkpoint, the desert landscape began to encroach upon the road. Architecture changed from multi storey brick apartments to single storey mud houses with dome roofs.

Nubian houses, Egypt
Nubian houses, Egypt

Simple shacks and villages lined the route into Edfu. Men sat at tables playing dominoes, a popular past time in the Egyptian cafes.

Dominos is a popular past time in Egyptian cafes.
Dominos is a popular past time in Egyptian cafes.

I reached Edfu just as the sun was setting. A busy little town on the West Bank of the Nile. A temple here dedicated to the sun god Horus. I booked into a hotel and settled in for the night. I treated myself to a pizza,  35 Egyptian pounds.

Edfu to Aswan.

Breakfast included in the hotel price. I was up and out of Edfu for 9am. Rather than retrace my steps back to the east bank of the Nile, I decided on another direction, hoping to find the Nile and cross to the east bank. It wasn’t to be and I ended up cycling on the Great Western Desert Highway.

From Edfu, it is 10km to the Great Western Desert Highway, Egypt
From Edfu, it is 10km to the Great Western Desert Highway, Egypt

With no amenities and only carrying two litres of water and no food, it was going to be a long day. On a positive note, the traffic was light and no people!

Desert cycling, Egypt
Desert cycling, Egypt

During the Neolithic Age, the Western Desert was thought to have been semi-arid grassland. Home to wildlife and groups of hunter gatherers. Today, this desert is uninhabited as I found out for myself.

The western desert is mostly rocky.
The western desert is mostly rocky.

Cycling the western highway. Flat cycling, trucks and cars drive at speed. I didn’t see any donkeys today, camels neither. At intersections that led back towards the Nile, there was always an ambulance outpost where water was obtainable.

Egypt 6th most polluted country in the world.
Egypt 6th most polluted country in the world.

Garbage is only recycled in Alexandria and Cairo. In other areas of Egypt, garbage is dumped in the desert, the Nile  and on the streets. It’s a real problem.

The western desert. From the Nile to Libya the desert spans 240 miles.

As I ambled along, I thought how the desert could be used to create energy via solar panels. I didn’t see a single solar panel for 120km to Aswan.

The Western Desert, Egypt
The Western Desert, Egypt

After 75km of cycling I did come across a roadworkers encampment. I was fed a potato stew with bread, along with a tea. I was very grateful, just what I needed.

Kind man at the roadworks encampment. Western Desert
Kind man at the roadworks encampment. Western Desert

I pushed on, counting down the km to Aswan. I had a litre of water and two oranges to keep me company.

Western Desert Highway, Egypt
Western Desert Highway, Egypt

I reached Aswan at 6pm. It was dark and I had to find a room. It took me nearly two hours until I found a suitable hotel. Most of the hotels were out my price range, 35 dollars upwards. I then stumbled upon the Keylang Hotel. The owner quoted 22 dollars and then showed me the Egyptian quarter for 120 Egyptian pounds. Clean with shared bathroom, I moved in.

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